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The Araby By James Joyce

The Araby by James Joyce In Chile, women make up 51% of the country’s population. The National Women’s Service (SERNAM), created in 1991, is the agency responsible for designing and formulating public policy with regard to women.

The director of SERNAM holds the rank of minister and participates in the President’s cabinet. In Chile traditional definitions of gender roles have broken down considerably as women have won access to more education and have entered the labor force in larger numbers. By 1990 about half the students in the nation’s primary and secondary schools were female; the proportion of women was lower, about 44 percent of the total enrollment in all forms of higher education (Agosin, Franzen, 1998). The University of Chile graduated Latin America’s first female lawyers and physicians in the 1880s. However, women made faster progress in traditionally female professions than in other professions. Thus, by 1910 there were 3,980 women teachers, but there were only seven physicians, ten dentists, and three lawyers. By the 1930s, female enrollments reached significant numbers in these fields.

The University of Chile in 1932 had 124 female students enrolled in law (17 percent of the total), ninety-six in medicine (9.5 percent), and 108 in dentistry (38 percent), although 55 percent of all women students at the university were enrolled in education (Baldez, 2002). Nonetheless, popular beliefs hold very strongly to the notion that women reach full self-realization primarily through motherhood. This generates strong pressures on women to have children, although most take the necessary measures to have fewer than did their mothers and especially their grandmothers. Employed working-class women usually are able to find preschools and day care for their small children, as these programs are broadly established throughout the country. The extended family also provides a means of obtaining child care (Lavrin, 1998).

Surveys of working-class respondents can usually be counted on to capture the more traditional views of urban society toward male and female roles because such attitudes are usually associated with lower levels of educational attainment (Agosin, Franzen, 1998). But working-class Chileans are in general not as traditionally minded as could be expected about the issue of women working outside the home. In a 1988 survey of workers, 70 percent of the men and 85 percent of the women agreed with the notion that “even if there is no economic necessity, it is still convenient for women to work.” The notion that “men should participate more actively in housework so that women are able to work” was accepted by 70 percent of men and 92 percent of women. Forty-five percent of men believed that “women who work gravely neglect their home obligations,” while 21 percent of women did so. However, male support for

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